are fluid-filled sacs. They occur
most often in women 35 to 50 years of age, and they often enlarge
and become tender and painful just before the menstrual period.
They are usually found in both breasts. Some cysts are so small
they cannot be felt; rarely, they may be several inches across.
Cysts are usually treated by observation or by fine-needle
aspiration. Cysts show up clearly on ultrasound. (See "
Aspirating a Cyst
are solid and round benign tumors that are
made up of both structural (fibro) and glandular (adenoma) tissues.
Usually these lumps are painless, and usually they are found by the
woman herself. They feel rubbery and can easily be moved around.
Fibroadenomas are the most common type of tumors in women in their
late teens and early twenties, and they occur twice as often in
African-American women as in other American women.
Fibroadenomas have a typically benign appearance on mammography
(smooth, round masses with a clearly defined edge), and they can
sometimes be diagnosed with fine needle aspiration. Although
fibroadenomas do not become malignant, they can enlarge with
pregnancy and breast-feeding. Most surgeons believe that it is a
good idea to remove fibroadenomas to make sure they are benign.
is the name given to painless, round and
firm lumps formed by damaged and disintegrating fatty tissues. This
condition typically occurs in obese women with very large breasts.
It often develops in response to a bruise or blow to the breast,
even though the woman may not remember the specific injury.
Sometimes the skin around the lumps looks red or bruised. Fat
necrosis can easily be mistaken for cancer, so such lumps are
removed in a surgical biopsy (See "
is a benign condition involving the
excessive growth of tissues in the breast's lobules. It frequently
causes breast pain. Usually the changes are microscopic, but
adenosis can produce lumps, and it can show up on mammography,
often as calcifications. Short of biopsy, adenosis can be difficult
to distinguish from cancer. The usual approach is surgical biopsy,
which furnishes both diagnosis and treatment.