8. Oral contraceptives. There is some evidence that long-term (more than five years) use of oral contraceptives may increase the risk of liver cancer. More research is needed in this area.
9. Betel quid. This is the nut of the Areca catechu palm, and is commonly chewed in some parts of the world.
10. Aflatoxin. This is a mold product common in foods that are cultivated in hot, humid climates or stored in warm damp conditions.
1. Blonski W et al., “Non-viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma”, World J Gastroenterol 2010 August 7; 16(29): 3603-15.
2. Hemochromatosis information online:
Linda Fugate is a scientist and writer in Austin, Texas. She has a Ph.D. in Physics and an M.S. in Macromolecular Science and Engineering. Her background includes academic and industrial research in materials science. She currently writes song lyrics and health articles.