Vertigo is a feeling of spinning or whirling when you are not moving. It can also be an exaggerated feeling of motion without moving your body. It is the most common form of dizziness, but is different from light-headedness (the feeling of nearly passing out).
Vertigo is usually caused by problems in the nerves and structures of the inner ear, called the vestibular system. This system senses the position of your head and body in space as they move.
Vertigo can occur with the following conditions:
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
Tiny particles naturally present in the canals of the inner ear, dislodge, and move abnormally when the head is tilted, pushing ear fluid against hair-like sensors in the ear. BPPV may result from:
Disorders of the inner ear
Age-related breakdown of the vestibular system
(vestibular neuritis)—inflammation of the inner ear, often follows an upper respiratory infection
Semont maneuver—The patient is moved rapidly from lying on one side to the other (also called liberatory maneuver).
Epley maneuver—This maneuver involves head exercises to move the loose particles to a place in the ear where they won't cause dizziness. A recent study suggested that patients who demonstrate involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) in the same direction through two steps of the maneuver tend to recover better than those whose eyes move in a different pattern or do not move at all.
If you continue to experience vertigo, the maneuvers can be repeated, or more difficult maneuvers such as Brandt-Daroff exercises can be done.
Physical therapy can also be helpful.
If symptoms persist for a year or more and cannot be controlled by the maneuvers, several surgical procedures can be performed. A surgical procedure called "canal plugging" may be recommended.
Canal plugging completely stops the posterior semicircular canal's function without affecting the functions of the other canals or parts of the inner ear. This procedure poses a small risk to hearing. Other surgical procedures include removing parts of the vestibular nerve or semicircular canals in the inner ear. Gentamycin injections can also be done. Talk with your doctor to learn more about these injections.
Treatment of the Underlying Cause
Vertigo can be a symptom of another medical condition, such as a heart problem or a neurological problem. Once that condition is treated, vertigo should stop, or, in this case, the underlying medical problem should be treated to help relieve the vertigo.
If you are diagnosed as having vertigo, follow your doctor's
If you are prone to vertigo, the following precautions may help prevent an episode:
Rest your head on two or more pillows while sleeping.
Avoid sleeping on the "bad side" of your head.
In the morning, get up slowly and sit on the edge of the bed for a minute before standing.
Avoid bending down to pick items up.
Avoid extending your neck, such as to get something out of a cabinet.
Be careful at the dentist's office, hair salon, in sports activities, or positions where your head is flat or extended.
Updated Maneuvers section on 9/6/2007 according to the following study, as cited by
DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Oh HJ, Kim JS, Han BI, Lim JG. Predicting a successful treatment in posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a