The heart is comprised of four chambers: two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). Electrical signals regulate the heart beat, and help the atria and ventricles work together in the same rhythm. The blood from the atria is pushed into the ventricles, and then leaves the heart to circulate to the rest of the body.
Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal fast beating ( arrhythmia
Atrial flutter may be an acute or chronic recurring disorder. When treated, atrial flutter is not usually life-threatening. However, it may increase your risk of developing blood clots and
This condition can be treated. Contact your doctor if you think you may have atrial flutter.
Anatomy of the Heart
Atrial flutter may be caused by the following:
The following factors increase your chance of developing atrial flutter. If you have any of these risk factors, tell your doctor:
- Heart disease
- Heart surgery
- History of high blood pressure
Atrial flutter is more likely to develop in older adults.
If you experience any of these symptoms, do not assume the cause is due to atrial flutter. These symptoms may be caused by other, less serious health conditions. If you experience any one of them consistently, see your physician.
Atrial flutter does not always produce symptoms. However, symptoms, when present, include:
- A “fluttering” or tremor-like feeling in the chest
- Palpitations (rapid heart beat or pounding sensation in the chest)
- Pressure or discomfort in the chest
- Shortness of breath
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Depending on your condition, your doctor may also recommend that you see a cardiologist or arrhythmia specialist. This type of physician may be found in a larger hospital.
Tests may include the following:
The goal of treating atrial flutter is to slow down the electrical impulses that are sent from the atria (upper chamber of the heart) to the ventricles (lower chamber of the heart), restore normal rhythm, and prevent future episodes. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Pharmacologic (Medication) Therapy
Medication may be given to slow the rapid heart rate and convert the atrial flutter to a normal rhythm. These medications may include:
- Beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol)
- Nonhydropyridine calcium channel antagonists (eg, diltiazem, verapamil)
Other medications called antiarrhythmics may be used to help your heart maintain a normal rhythm:
- Sotalol (Betapace)
- Propafenone (Rythmol)
- Flecainide (Tambecor)
- Amiodarone (Cordarone)
- Dofetilide (Tikosyn)
- Ibutilide (Corvert)
An external defibrillator is applied to the chest, and uses electrical current to “shock” the heart back to its normal rhythm.
For patients with recurrent atrial flutter that cannot be controlled with medications, ablation can be performed during the course of an EP study. Using the same catheters, an area of the heart from which an abnormal electrical rhythm is generated can be destroyed. This can be curative for atrial flutter.
When atrial flutter is recurrent, blood thinners (warfarin) are an important therapy to prevent blood clots that can cause strokes or other serious complications.
If you are diagnosed with atrial flutter, follow your doctor's instructions .
To help reduce your chances of getting atrial flutter, take the following steps:
- Reduce or eliminate use of caffeine, stimulants, alcohol, nicotine, certain medications (eg, cold medicine, diet pills) or recreational drugs
- Obtain treatment for any underlying heart or lung disease
- Reduce your levels of stress and anxiety
- Check with your doctor before taking any new medications, herbs, or supplements
American Heart Association
American College of Cardiology
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Atrial flutter. Heart Rhythm Society website. Available at http://www.hrspatients.org/patients/heart%5Fdisorders/atrial_fibrillation/aflutter.asp . Accessed August 15, 2005.
Atrial flutter and treatment. American Heart Association website. Available at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=52 . Accessed August 14, 2005.
Fauci AS, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine . 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Lee KW, Yang Y, Scheinman MM. Atrial flutter: a review of its history, mechanisms, clinical features, and current therapy. Curr Prob Cardiol . 2005;30(3):121-167.
Last reviewed November 2008 by
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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