There are two primary types of therapy: medication and talk.
Medications are used for certain psychological conditions caused by a biochemical imbalance, such as depression and bipolar disorder. Medication can only be prescribed by a doctor or psychiatrist, and it is generally used along with talk therapy, so that psychological issues and biochemical problems may be treated at the same time.
Talk therapies, also known as counseling or psychotherapy, treat psychological or emotional problems through verbal communication. Although they are based on psychological theories, talk therapies also fulfill a very basic human need to share problems and connect with others.
Some types of counseling may be better suited to your particular issues, as well as your personality, time, and budget. Listed below are some of the most common types; however, keep in mind that most therapists tend to use a combination of one or more approaches.
Description: developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1900s, psychoanalysis focuses on identifying repressed feelings and issues that influence current behavior. The process is complex and lengthy, and it is less widely used today.
problems stemming from childhood conflict
Description: focuses on examining and changing unhealthy thought processes that shape behavior patterns
Description: identifies and interprets unconscious feelings to bring about behavioral change. The effectiveness of this therapy is an area that needs to be studied more. Medication is usually part of this treatment.
people with certain personality disorders or chronic mental disorders
Couples, Marital, and Family Therapy
Description: This kind of counseling focuses on the interactions of a unit or system rather than individual members. This approach is based on the idea that the problems of an individual must be understood in the context of a larger system.
couples, families, children, or teens with emotional disorders, serious diseases, or who experienced traumatic events
one of the most widely used forms of psychotherapy, works toward self-understanding, self-acceptance, and modification of the problem behavior
adolescents and people who share similar diseases or disorders, such as substance abuse, compulsive gambling, and eating disorders.
Most of the time, you will choose a therapist affiliated with your health plan. You may also check with your doctor, other community mental health agencies, local colleges or universities, hospitals, and government social service agencies for referrals.
What Should You Ask Your New Therapist?
As a therapy client, there are standard practices and procedures that you should expect. According to the American Counseling Association (ACA), your therapist should be able to inform you of:
Their credentials and qualifications, as well as areas of expertise
The purposes, goals, techniques, procedures, limitations, and potential risks and benefits associated with therapy
Matters of confidentiality, privacy, and disclosure of information
Financial arrangements prior to beginning the counseling relationship
How Do You Know When You're Finished?
In general, "individuals who are ready to end therapy usually feel that they have made progress. They feel more confident, hopeful, accepting, and aware of their emotions and needs. It may be easier for them to get along with others and to recognize and avoid pitfalls and self-defeating behavior," say Dianne Hales and Robert E. Hales in their book,
Caring for the Mind.
Ultimately, though, the progress and termination of therapy will be your decision.
Hales DR, Hales RE, Frances A.
Caring for the Mind: The Comprehensive Guide to Mental Health. New York, NY: Bantam Books; 1995.
Malmberg L, Fenton M. Individual psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis for schizophrenia and severe mental illness.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
2001;(2):CD001360. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001360
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a